Gianlucatour A day in the south tour helps us to discover this Lazio countryside full of archaeological sites, rocky castles and early Christian basilicas. The city of Popes.
Usually the tour lasts an average of 8 hours, including any travel time.
- ANAGNI CITY OF THE POPES
- ALATRI AND THE ERNICI TRIBE
- THE CASTEL OF THE GHOSTS
Lunch stop at the customer's expense.
Each additional hour to the fee will be charged in Total at a cost of Euro 50.00 per hour.
The walls consist of several layers of megaliths polymorphic, from the same hill and made fit perfectly interlocking without the use of lime or cement (polygonal); with their perimeter describe a trapezoidal area of 19,000 square meters.
They reach the highest elevation in the Pizzale, ie the southeastern corner: tapered towards the top, consists of fifteen large overlapping blocks; the cornerstone of the base has a bas-relief which was interpreted as a solar orb, probably a tribute to the rising Sun on this side.
The historicization of the construction of the walls is controversial, the French archaeologist Louis Charles François Petit-Radel (1756-1836) laid the foundation of Alatri dating before the Second Cologne Pelasgian, dating back to 1539 BC, while the science of archeology has supported 'Ernica origin and the overall restructuring in Roman times.
The human presence in the territory of Alatri is ascertained by the Chalcolithic period.
The French archaeologist Louis-Charles-François Petit-Radel (1756-1836) placed the date of the founding of Alatri before the Second Cologne Pelasgian, dating back to 1539 BC In historical times, the city is inhabited by an Italic population of Ernici.
In 380 and 362 BC Ernici come into conflict with Rome. In the subsequent revolt of 306 BC Alatri remained loyal to Rome, he gets to remain independent and experienced a period of well-being, which has a peak in the first forty years of the second century BC coinciding with the planning and administrative reorganization of the city promoted by the censor Lucius Betilieno Varo.
Between the third and second centuries BC date is the small temple of Alatri type Etruscan-Italic, whose remains are preserved in the National Etruscan Museum of Villa Giulia in Rome, which also houses a life-size reconstruction.
An overhead view of the complex of Civita in Alatri led to suppose that the fort is an extraordinary work of archaeoastronomy, as its perimeter was drawn on ground like in the sky from the constellation of Gemini at the summer solstice.
The supposed archaeoastronomical orientation, which was confirmed by prof. Professor Giulio Magli of archaeoastronomy, as trim found in many cities of ancient Greece and Asia Minor, the Middle East demonstrate the thesis of an origin city: a radial plan, that is, with the perimeter of the outer wall due to a polygonal circumference headed by a single center (for Alatri point called the "Hieron", stated, on the north side, from a mighty stretch of bare rock emerging under the complex polygon at the base of St Paul's Cathedral).
Archaeoastronomy is the combination of archaeological and astronomical studies .
Archaeoastronomy is the study of how the ancients interpreted the celestial phenomena, as he had used them and what role the sky in their culture .
Clive Ruggles suggested that this scientific discipline should not be limited only to the study of ancient astronomy , but the wealth of interpretations that the ancients were in the sky.
It is often twinned with the ethnoastronomy , the anthropological study of the observation of the sky
( Skywatching ) in contemporary societies .
This scientific discipline is also closely related to astronomy history, using historical records of celestial events , and the history of astronomy , which uses written records to evaluate the astronomical traditions of the past.
Archaeoastronomy of the second type is the study of the solar arrays , moon or star of ancient monuments.
For example, many tests show that Stonehenge represents an ancient " astronomical observatory " , although the scope of its use is still among the researchers, the subject of dispute.
Certainly, Stonehenge and many other ancient monuments are aligned with the solstices and equinoxes.
In the Mediterranean area stands the Acropolis of Alatri , whose shape perfectly reproduces the constellation of Gemini at the time of the summer solstice .
The complex of the Great Pyramid of Giza would be aligned with the stars of Orion's belt , reflecting the meaning assigned to that constellation by the ancient Egyptians .
CASTEL AND GHOSTS
According to legend, the origins of Fumone date back to the time of Tarquinius Superbus (fifth century BC), who took refuge there after being driven from Rome.
Of course we know that, by virtue of its geographical location, and to be between the three major centers of the people of Ernici (Alatri, Anagni, Ferentino) performs an important function since ancient times to control the territory.
In particular, during the Middle Ages, the hill of Fumone becomes crucial for the safety of Rome in times marked by Saracen and Norman: In the event of invasion picks up smoke signals sent that signal an impending danger from the most directly threatened, and refers them Urbe.
The castle of Fumone was the main military stronghold of the Papal States of the Lower New York ; was used for over 500 years ( XI- XVI century ) as a lookout point . The smoke being produced from the high tower communicated throughout the campaign and Maritime enemies that were placed on Casilina and warned the population to find a refuge .
This gave rise to the popular adage : When Fumone smoke, shaking the whole country and also the name of the country. Due to its strategic location, Fumone turned into an impregnable fortress and history were in vain attempts to conquer even by Frederick Barbarossa and Henry VI; we only succeeded Pope Gregory IX in the thirteenth century, but peacefully and under payment of a large sum of money .
In 1121 the castle of Fumone was a place of imprisonment and death for Maurizio Flange , French antipope also known by the name of Gregory VIII , which was conducted in Fumone by Pope Callistus II; the body of the anti buried in the castle was never recovered. The most important episode occurred , however, in 1295 when he was taken prisoner in the castle Pope Celestine V (known by the name of Pietro da Morrone ) , who " through cowardice made the great refusal ." After a captivity lasted ten months dies in Fumone May 19 , 1296 ; since then the castle begins to be also a place spiritually important.
During the 1500s , however, the castle , having lost its military importance and no longer having maintenance work was decaying ; For this reason , in 1584 Pope Sixtus V , he decided that there being dead Celestine V , the castle had to be preserved as a place of historical memory and entrusted to a noble family of Rome : the Marquises Longhi . Sixtus V chose this family because their ancestor William, who was elected cardinal by Pope Celestine V began to create the cult , protecting the order of Celestine created by Pietro da Morrone.
The castle of Fumone was transformed over the years from the Longhi family in a real house , it is still a privately owned and inhabited by the current heir of the family.
ANAGNI CITY OF THE POPES
Anagni is an Italian city of 30,000 inhabitants  in the province of Frosinone in Lazio.
It is known as the city of the Popes, for having given birth to four popes (Innocent III, Alexander IV, Pope Gregory IX and Pope Boniface VIII) and for a long time been the papal residence and headquarters. In particular, the name of Anagni is linked to the events of Pope Boniface VIII and the episode known as the slap of Anagni.
In medieval center, made of elegant and austere buildings, Romanesque churches, steeples, loggias and piazzas of simple and essential, are of great interest to the thirteenth palace of Boniface VIII, the town hall, the house Barnekow and numerous churches, among which the cathedral, with its splendid crypt whose frescoes are one of the most interesting series of paintings of the thirteenth century Italian.
It was a free commune and in the thirteenth century fell under the rule of the Caetani . In this period he lived a phase of extraordinary splendor , garnering about 50,000 inhabitants , giving to the Church four popes and became a papal residence , deserving the nickname " City of Popes" ( Innocent III , Alexander IV , Pope Gregory IX and Boniface VIII ) .
Following the return of the popes in Rome, the city suffered a sharp decline and returned to count every few years around 2700 inhabitants, during this period was ruled by dukes appointed by the church .
The city was the scene of fighting between the Colonna, the French king Philip the Fair and Pope Boniface VIII, who was taken prisoner and here came the famous episode of the "slap of Anagni ."
In 1798 , he took part in the movement that led to the Jacobins Roman Republic.
The city was the capital of the Department of Circeo of the Roman Republic and therefore has a court of censorship. After the French occupation of Lazio and the birth of the Department of Rome (1805) annexed to the empire of Napoleon , Anagni hosted a contingent of Imperial Police .
In 1848-1849 the city was the protagonist of the story of the Roman Republic as it was home to the headquarters of the First Division of the Republican army ( led by Giuseppe Garibaldi ) .
The Cathedral Basilica of St. Mary Catholic place of worship is the chief of Anagni , in the province of Frosinone. It is dedicated to Santa Maria Annunziata .
The construction of the cathedral dates from the years 1072-1104 by Bishop Peter of Salerno and the munificence of the emperor of the East Michael VII Ducas .
The cathedral is Romanesque style , while the interior, comes in Lombard Gothic after the restoration of 1250 by the bishop that Pandolfo , replaced the wooden beams of the nave and transept with Gothic arches .
The church has three naves built by the Masters of Como . Characteristic fine mosaic floor made famous in 1231 by the family of marble , the Cosmati (hence the adjective cosmatesco ) .
" The Crypt of the Cathedral of Anagni, dedicated to St. Albert the Great, patron of the city , is one of the most beautiful and important of Italy and Europe. Was built simultaneously with the upper church .
Known as the " Sistine Chapel of the Middle Ages " , its value lies in the harmony of a wonderful mix of Romanesque arches, floor cosmatesco original and magnificent frescoes covering an area of 540 m² .
The fresco cycle was the work of three artists' workshops unknown , better known as First Master or Master of translations , Second Master or Master decorator and Third Master or Master of Anagni ( also recognized as the author of Gothic frescoes of the Roman church of the Four Crowned Saints ) .
It is the story of man's salvation from its origin to its judgment. On the twenty-one times , in fact, are depicted scenes from the Old and New Testament ( the story of the Ark of the Covenant and Revelation ) and a rare and important cycle on the scientific foundation of the world and of man, in which the concept of the microcosm macrocosm is accompanied by the figures of the physicians Hippocrates and Galen and the Theory of tap- Platonic .